What is fibre optics? Its types, working, advantages, disadvantages & Applications

The fibre optics is a technology that uses glass or plastic fibres to transmit data over long distances. It involves the transmission of light through the fibre, which allows for high-speed data transfer.

Types of fibre optics:

  1. Single-mode fiber – used for long-distance communication, it has a narrow core that allows for a single mode of light to travel through it, resulting in less signal loss and higher bandwidth.
  2. Multi-mode fibre – used for shorter distances, it has a larger core that allows for multiple modes of light to travel through it, resulting in more signal loss and lower bandwidth.

Working of fibre optics:

Fibre works by sending pulses of light down a glass or plastic fibre. The fibre acts as a waveguide, meaning it guides the light along its length through internal reflection. The light is transmitted using a laser or LED, which converts electrical signals into light pulses. These light pulses travel down the fibre and are received at the other end by a photodetector, which converts the light back into an electrical signal.

working of fibre optics


  1. High bandwidth – Ir can transmit data at much higher speeds than traditional copper wires.
  2. Low signal loss – Fibre can transmit data over much longer distances without the signal weakening.
  3. Immunity to electromagnetic interference – Unlike copper wires, it is not affected by electromagnetic interference from other sources.
  4. Lightweight and durable – Fibre is lightweight and can withstand harsh environments.


  1. Expensive – Fibre is more expensive to install and maintain than traditional copper wires.
  2. Fragile – Fibre optics are more fragile than copper wires and can be damaged easily.
  3. Requires specialized equipment – Fibre optics require specialized equipment for installation and maintenance.


  1. Telecommunications – Fibre is widely used in telecommunications for long-distance communication.
  2. Internet – Fibre is used to connect homes and businesses to the internet.
  3. Medical equipment – Fibre optics are used in medical equipment such as endoscopes and lasers.
  4. Military and aerospace It is used in military and aerospace applications due to their durability and resistance to electromagnetic interference.

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