What is connector? Its types, working, advantages, disadvantages & Applications

In the context of electrical and electronic systems, a connector is a device used to connect two or more electrical circuits together. Connectors are used to establish and maintain electrical connections between components, devices, or systems. They come in various types and sizes, depending on the application, and can be categorized based on their working principles, design, and applications.

Types of connectors:

  1. Wire-to-wire connectors: These are connectors used to connect two or more wires together. They can be crimped, soldered, or twisted to make a secure connection.
  2. Wire-to-board connectors: These are connectors used to connect wires to a printed circuit board (PCB) or a mother board. They are often used in electronic devices such as computers, mobile phones, and other consumer electronics.
  3. Board-to-board connectors: These connectors are used to connect two or more PCBs together. They are often used in electronic devices that have multiple PCBs, such as computer servers.
  4. Coaxial connectors: These are connectors used to transmit high-frequency signals, such as radio or television signals. They consist of a central conductor surrounded by a tubular shield.
  5. Optical connectors: These are connectors used to connect optical fibers together to transmit light signals. They are commonly used in telecommunications, medical equipment, and scientific research.

Working principle of connectors:

The basic principle of connectors is to provide a secure and reliable electrical connection between two or more conductors. Most connectors have a male and female component, with one component having pins or blades that fit into a corresponding socket or receptacle on the other component. When the two components are plugged together, the pins or blades make contact with the sockets or receptacles, creating an electrical connection.


  1. Flexibility: Connectors provide a flexible and easy way to connect and disconnect components without the need for permanent wiring.
  2. Reliability: Connectors are designed to provide a reliable electrical connection even in harsh environments, such as high temperature or vibration.
  3. Reusability: Connectors can be reused multiple times, making them a cost-effective solution in applications where components need to be replaced or upgraded.
  4. Maintenance: Connectors can be easily inspected and maintained, which helps to ensure that they are functioning properly.


  1. Cost: Connectors can be expensive compared to other methods of electrical connection, such as soldering or crimping.
  2. Size: Connectors can be bulky and take up more space than other methods of electrical connection.
  3. Compatibility: Connectors may not be compatible with all components or systems, which can limit their use in certain applications.


  1. Consumer electronics: Connectors are used in devices such as computers, mobile phones, and televisions to connect components together.
  2. Automotive: Connectors are used in automotive systems such as lighting, powertrain, and infotainment.
  3. Aerospace: Connectors are used in aircraft systems for communication, navigation, and control.
  4. Medical equipment: Connectors are used in medical devices such as diagnostic equipment, patient monitors, and surgical instruments.
  5. Industrial: Connectors are used in industrial applications such as automation, robotics, and control systems.

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