What is Battery – Features, Types, Working & Its Applications

A battery is a device that stores electrical energy and converts it into electrical power. It typically consists of one or more electrochemical cells, which convert chemical energy into electrical energy.

Batteries can be used to power a wide range of devices, from small electronic devices such as cell phones and laptops to larger devices such as cars and power tools. They can be rechargeable or disposable and come in various sizes and types, such as lithium-ion, lead-acid, and nickel-cadmium.

Features of Battery

The most important features of batteries include being:

  • Voltage: The voltage of a battery is the electrical potential difference between its terminals. This is measured in volts (V).
  • Capacity: The capacity of a battery is the amount of electrical energy that it can store, measured in amp-hours (Ah).
  • Energy density: The energy density of a battery is the amount of energy stored per unit volume or weight, measured in Watt-hours per liter (Wh/L) or watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg).
  • Self-discharge rate: The self-discharge rate of a battery is the rate at which it loses its charge when not in use, measured as a percentage of the total capacity per month.
  • Cycle life: The cycle life of a battery is the number of times it can be charged and discharged before its capacity starts to degrade, measured in cycles.
  • Charge and discharge rate: The charge and discharge rate of a battery is the rate at which it can be charged and discharged, measured in amperes (A).
  • Operating temperature range: The operating temperature range of a battery is the range of temperatures within which it can be used safely and effectively.
  • Safety: The safety of a battery is very important and it can be measured by the safety mechanisms incorporated in it.
  • Cost: The cost of a battery is also an important feature as it determines the feasibility of the application it is used in.

Symbol of Battery


Types of Battery

The battery can be classified into two major types which are given:

  • Primary battery
  • Secondary battery

Primary Battery

A primary battery is a type of non-rechargeable battery that converts chemical energy into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction. Once the chemical energy is depleted, the battery can no longer produce electricity and must be disposed of. Some common types of primary batteries include:

  • Alkaline batteries
  • Zinc-carbon batteries
  • Lithium primary batteries
  • Mercury batteries
  • Silver-oxide batteries

Secondary Battery

A secondary battery, also known as a rechargeable battery, is a type of battery that can be recharged and used multiple times. Unlike primary batteries, secondary batteries do not need to be disposed of after use. Instead, they can be restored and used again. Some common types of secondary batteries include:

  • Lead-acid batteries
  • Nickel-metal hydride batteries
  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries
  • Sodium-sulfur batteries

Working of Battery

Batteries work by converting the chemical energy stored in the electrodes and electrolytes into electrical energy. The flow of electrons through the external circuit provides the electrical power needed to run the device connected to the battery. The ability to recharge a battery and use it again makes them different from the primary batteries.

Application of Battery

  • Portable electronics
  • Electric vehicles
  • Backup power
  • Renewable energy
  • Industrial, Medical and Military applications

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