What is a distribution transformer? Its construction, working, advantages, disadvantages & Applications

A distribution transformer is a type of transformer that is used to step down high voltage electricity from power plants or transmission lines to lower voltages suitable for use in homes, businesses, and other buildings. These transformers are typically found on utility poles or in underground vaults and are used to distribute power to customers.

Construction of Distribution Transformer:

A distribution transformer consists of a core made of laminated steel, which is wound with two sets of insulated copper wire coils. The primary coil is connected to the high voltage power source, and the secondary coil is connected to the lower voltage distribution lines. The core and coils are then enclosed in a protective tank filled with transformer oil to provide insulation and cooling.

Working of Distribution Transformer:

When high voltage electricity is passed through the primary coil, it creates a magnetic field in the core, which induces a voltage in the secondary coil. The ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils determines the amount of voltage that is stepped down. The transformer oil serves as an insulator between the coils and core. It also helps dissipate heat generated by the transformer.

Advantages of Distribution Transformer:

  1. They are efficient and reliable.
  2. They provide a safe and convenient way to distribute power to homes and businesses.
  3. They are easy to maintain and repair.
  4. They can be designed to meet specific voltage and power requirements.

Disadvantages of Distribution Transformer:

  1. They can be expensive to install.
  2. They can be prone to failure due to various factors like overloading or lightning strikes.
  3. They can be hazardous if not properly maintained.


Distribution transformers are used in a wide range of applications, including:

  1. Providing power to residential and commercial buildings.
  2. Supplying power to factories and industrial facilities.
  3. Supporting renewable energy sources like wind and solar power.
  4. Providing backup power during emergencies.

Overall, distribution transformers play a critical role in the efficient and reliable distribution of electricity to homes, businesses, and other buildings.

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