What is a brushless motor? Its types, construction, working, advantages, disadvantages & Applications

A brushless motor is a type of electric motor that operates without brushes, which are typically made of carbon and are used to transfer electrical energy to the rotating armature. Instead of brushes, brushless motors use electronic controllers to energize the stator windings in a sequence that creates a rotating magnetic field that drives the rotor.

Types of Brushless Motor:

  1. Outrunner Motor
  2. Inrunner Motor
  3. Direct Drive Motor
  4. Geared Motor

Construction of brushless motor:

  1. Stator: The stationary part of the motor that houses the winding coils. The stator has multiple electromagnets arranged in a circular pattern, which creates a rotating magnetic field when powered by an electric current.
  2. Rotor: The rotating part of the motor that contains permanent magnets or electromagnets. The rotor rotates when the magnetic field created by the stator interacts with the magnetic field of the rotor.
  3. Hall Sensors: Hall sensors are used to detect the position of the rotor in relation to the stator. This information is sent to the motor controller to ensure that the correct winding coils are energized at the right time.
  4. Motor Controller: The motor controller receives input from the Hall sensors and controls the energization of the winding coils in the stator. The controller uses a sequence of signals to energize the coils in the correct order to create a rotating magnetic field.
  5. Bearings: Bearings are used to support the rotor and reduce friction between the rotor and stator. The bearings can be either ball bearings or sleeve bearings.
  6. Commutation Circuit: In a brushless motor, the commutation circuit is responsible for switching the energization of the stator winding coils to create a rotating magnetic field. This is done electronically, without the need for brushes.

Working of Brushless motor:

When an electric current flows through the stator windings, it generates a magnetic field that interacts with the magnetic field of the rotor. This interaction causes the rotor to rotate, which in turn drives the motor shaft. The electronic controller regulates the current flowing through the stator windings and changes the sequence.In which the windings are energized to control the speed and direction of the motor.


  1. Higher efficiency
  2. Lower maintenance
  3. Higher torque to weight ratio
  4. Smaller size and weight
  5. Quieter operation


  1. Higher initial cost
  2. More complex electronic controls
  3. Higher sensitivity to voltage fluctuations
  4. Limited speed range
  5. It is more difficult to repair


  1. Electric Vehicles: Brushless motors are widely used in electric vehicles, including cars, bikes, and scooters, due to their high efficiency and power output.
  2. Aerospace and Defence: Brushless motors are used in aerospace and defence applications, such as drones, missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), due to their lightweight and high torque-to-weight ratio.
  3. Robotics: Brushless motors are commonly used in robotics for their precise control and high torque output.which are making them ideal for applications such as robotic arms and drones.
  4. HVAC systems: Brushless motors are used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
  5. Industrial Automation: Brushless motors are used in industrial automation, such as conveyors, packaging machinery, and assembly lines, for their high reliability and efficiency.
  6. Medical Equipment: Brushless motors are used in medical equipment such as dental drills, surgical tools, and blood pumps for their precise control and low noise levels.

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