What is an electrical transformer? it’s types & applications

A transformer has a primary coil to which input is given and a secondary coil from which the output is collected. Both of these coils are wound on a core material. Usually, an insulator forms the core of the transformer. It is essentially a passive device that consists of two or more coils of insulated wire wrapped around a magnetic core. The primary coil is connected to the input circuit, while the secondary coil is connected to the output circuit. When an alternating current flows through the primary coil, it creates a magnetic field that induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

From the above figure, it is evident that few notations are common. Let us try to have a note of them. They are −

  • Np = Number of turns in the primary winding
  • Ns = Number of turns in the secondary winding
  • Ip = Current flowing in the primary of the transformer
  • Is = Current flowing in the secondary of the transformer
  • Vp = Voltage across the primary of the transformer
  • Vs = Voltage across the secondary of the transformer
  • Φ = Magnetic flux present around the core of the transformer.

Types of electrical transformers, including:

  1. Step-up transformer: When the secondary winding has more number of turns than the primary winding, then the transformer is said to be a Step-up transformer. Here the induced EMF is greater than the input signal.

Step-down transformer: When the secondary winding has lesser number of turns than the primary winding, then the transformer is said to be a Step-down transformer. Here the induced EMF is lesser than the input signal.

Isolation transformer: This type of transformer is used to isolate the input and output circuits for safety reasons. It provides electrical isolation between the input and output circuits to prevent electrical shocks and ground loops.

Auto-transformer: This type of transformer has a single winding that is tapped at different points to create a voltage ratio. It is used in applications where a small voltage change is required, such as in voltage regulators.

Applications of Electrical Transformer:

  1. Power transmission: Step-up transformers are used in power transmission systems to increase the voltage for efficient long-distance transmission.
  2. Power distribution: Step-down transformers are used in power distribution systems to reduce the voltage to a safe level for household or industrial use.
  3. Electrical motors: Transformers are used in electrical motors to convert the voltage from the power supply to a voltage suitable for the motor.
  4. Lighting systems: Transformers are used in lighting systems to convert the voltage from the power supply to a voltage suitable for the light bulbs.
  5. Electronic equipment: Isolation transformers are used in electronic equipment to prevent electrical noise and ground loops

Leave a Comment